Get LISNews via email! Enter Your Email Address:
EducationGuardian.co.uk: How many books written in seemingly obscure languages are misfiled and languishing unfindable in libraries? Joyce Flynn's experience at Harvard suggests the answer is: a lot.
Flynn, a researcher in Celtic languages, discovered some common mishaps that no one discusses much.
Sometimes, cataloguers and shelfers did strange things with books written in foreign languages. They mangled the catalogue listings, and tucked the books away on the wrong shelves.
The New York Times ran an editorial today praising the NYPL Main Reading Room for reclassifying its materials from the Billings system (created by a former director) to Library of Congress classification. There is a fair bit of musing about library classification, not something you normally see on the newspaper editorial page.
Paper from the University of Connecticut, Department of Economics. Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the provision of bibliographic data as an extension
of the open source concept. Our particular concern is the sustainability of such
endeavors. We describe the RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) project, probably
the largest "open source" bibliographic database. It demonstrates that opensource
bibliographic data collection is sustainable. Click here for full text of paper.
Thirteen Tips for Effective Tagging is one from over at TechSoup on tagging. A tag is a collaboratively generated, open-ended labeling system that enables Internet users to categorize content such as Web pages, online photographs, and Web links. Tagging lets you categorize information online your way. Sounds suspiciously like cataloging, only without the messy MARC rules.
At this website you can listen to the entire one hour presentation.
During the presentation Shirky refers to several graphics. You can see the graphics at this website. This makes it easier to follow the presentation because you can then see what the audience is seeing.
Overview of prsentation:
There are many ways to organize data: labels, lists, categories, taxonomies, ontologies. Of these, ontology -- assertions about essence and relations among a group of items -- seems to be the highest-order method of organization. Indeed, the predicted value of the Semantic Web assumes that ontological successes such as the Library of Congress's classification scheme are easily replicable.
Those successes are not easily replicable. Ontology, far from being an ideal high-order tool, is a 300-year-old hack, now nearing the end of its useful life. The problem ontology solves is not how to organize ideas but how to organize things -- the Library of Congress's classification scheme exists not because concepts require consistent hierarchical placement, but because books do.
The LC scheme, when examined closely, is riddled with inconsistencies, bias, and gaps. Top level geographic categories, for example, include "The Balkan Penninsula" and "Asia." The primary medical categories don't include oncology, defaulting to the older and now discredited notion that cancers were more related to specific organs than to common processes. And the list of such oddities goes on.
The reason the LC scheme is accumulating these errors faster than they can correct them is the physical fact of the book, which makes a card catalog scheme necessary, and constant re-shelving impossible. Likewise, it enforces cookie-cutter categorization that doesn't reflect the polyphony of its contents--there is a literature of creativity, for example, made up of books about art, science, engineering, and so on, and yet those books are not categorized (which is to say shelved) together, because the LC scheme doesn't recognize creativity as an organizing principle. For a reader interested in creativity, the LC ontology destroys value rather than creating it.
As we have learned from the Web, when data is decoupled from physical presence, it is fluid enough to be grouped differently by different readers, and on different days. The Web's main virtue, in handling data, is to transmute organization from an a priori, content-based judgment to one that can be ad hoc, context-based, socially embedded, and constantly altered. The Web frees us from needing to argue about whether The Book of 5 Rings "is" a business book or a primer on war -- it is plainly both, and not only are we freed from making that judgment firmly or in advance, we are freed from needing to make it explicit at all.
This talk begins by exploring the rise of ontological classification. In the period after the invention of the printing press but before the invention of the search engine, intellectual production was vested in books, objects that were numerous but opaque. When you have more than a few hundred books, categorization becomes a forced move, even if the categories are somewhat arbitrary, because without categories, you can no longer locate individual books.
It will relate this "opaque objects" problem to the more recent history of organizing pure data -- a hierarchical file-system; then the emergence of "symbolic" links, which undermined the hierarchy but left intact the idea that data "was" somewhere, and that all other pointers were second-class; to our current system, where the URL makes all links equally symbolic.
The URL represents the inversion of the traditional scale, making the mere label and not the mighty ontology the key site of organizational value. The talk will go on to describe the tension between productive and extractive modes of metadata, and the effects of scale, heterogenous user assumptions, naï¿½ve and flat classifications, lowered barriers to production and tagging, and long-lived classifications by individuals. These are all things that are inimical to ontology but predictive of extractive organizational value, in the manner of Google.
The talk ends by discussing key technologies in the spread of extractive value -- Google, del.icio.us, fotonotes, purple numbers, RDF -- and wrapping up with some predictions about where value might be encapsulated in user-tagged, semi-structured data in the future.
Clay Shirky teaches at NYU's graduate Interactive Telecommunications Program. He writes and consults on the social and economic effects of the Internet, concentrating particularly on the decentralization of applications (peer-to-peer architectures and programmatic interfaces) and on the current explosion in social software.
This presentation is one of a series from the O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference held in San Diego, California, March 14-17, 2005.
This program is from our O'Reilly Media Emerging Technology Conference 2005 series.
Anonymous Patron writes "http://www.publishingnews.co.uk/pn/pno_news6.asp? Helping library browsers# Claire Bott reports on More Readers Reading More THE TRADITIONAL ARRANGEMENT of libraries is off-putting to readers, Wiltshire's Lending/Communications Librarian Philip Tomes told an audience of librarians and publishers last week. Speaking at the launch of the Reading Agency's "More Readers Reading More", a title in celebration of the Reading Partners project which pairs up libraries with publishers for their mutual benefit, Tomes said:We're getting away from having ranks and ranks of Dewey Decimal System ordered books, and putting them into zones or categories that make it far easier for the reader. If you were after a relationship or self-help book, it would be very difficult to find in a traditional library.
The re-organising of the Wiltshire libraries is part of a joint initiative between the local Library Authority and HarperCollins, undertaken as part of Reading Partners. HarperCollins, which has been having success in bookshops with the You Zone, an area devoted to Mind Body Spirit, suggested that this was an idea which could be used by libraries, and this sparked the concept of re-arranging the books by category. Within each section, however, they are still organised according to the Dewey Decimal System.
A roll-out of You Zones across libraries throughout the South East is now being considered. Ruth Wells, Reading Development Co-ordinator at MLA (Museums, Libraries, and Archives) South East, said:The You Zone will provide libraries with a healthy space; within their service which puts the health and well-being of the reader at the centre of library services. MLA South East may apply for Big Lottery funding in order to put the scheme into operation.Another point to emerge at the event, which included much discussion on Reading Partners, is the value of libraries in building the elusive word-of-mouth factor. Clare Harington, Random House Group Communications Director, said: Publishers in marketing campaigns are always talking about creating a word-of-mouth buzz, and then looking round at each other and wondering how we do it. However, libraries were frequently embedded in their local community to an extent that made such a buzz considerably easier to generate.They have links to their reading groups, reading groups newsletters, links to local radio, and all of that can be exploited to the full, said Rebecca Ash, Random House Group Marketing Manager.
The final speaker, Debbie Hicks, who looks after Policy and Strategy at the Reading Agency, made the point that libraries also get involved in direct sales of books more often than most people believed, with 81% of authorities selling in-print books at some point, often in connection with reading groups or author events. One of the suggestions put forward at the event, by Helen Johnstone, HarperFiction Publicity Manager, who worked with Tomes on the Wiltshire project, was that publishers could offer reading group discount hotlines for libraries.# Copies of More Readers Reading More have been distributed to participating libraries and the publishing partners."
LibraryThing (a commercial service that allows you to catalog and tag your books) is worth a look if you haven't checked it out recently. Several gizmos have been added since the original beta launch last year, and the number of members and cataloged books seems to have really taken off. The site's operator has even put out a job posting for web developers.
Jay writes "Managing Information recently pointed out that the Library of Congress has published a report titled 'The Changing Nature of the Catalog and Its Integration with Other Discovery Tools' that 'challenges assumptions about the traditional library catalog and proposes new directions for the research library catalog in the digital era.'. Excerpt: 'Commissioned by the Library and prepared by Associate University Librarian Karen Calhoun of Cornell University, the report assesses the impact of Internet on the traditional online public access catalog and concludes that library patrons want easy-to-use catalogs that are accessible on the Web.'
Read the full report at
The Changing Nature of the Catalog and Its Integration with Other Discovery Tools."
Dr Web's Domain pointed the way to a neat set of articles from Library of Congress Professional Guild.
"The Future of Cataloging," by Dr. Deanna B. Marcum, Associate Librarian of Congress.
"Will Google's Keyword Searching Eliminate the Need for LC Cataloging and Classification?" by Dr. Thomas Mann, Reference Librarian in the Library of Congress Main Reading Room.
"Survey of Library User Studies" also by Dr. Thomas Mann, Reference Librarian in the Library of Congress Main Reading Room.
New essay! The Changing Nature of the Catalog and Its Integration with Other Discovery Tools. Final Report. March 17, 2006. Prepared for the Library of Congress by Karen Calhoun. A Critical Review by Thomas Mann.
According to the Calhoun report, library operations that are not digital, that do not result in
resources that are remotely accessible, that involve professional human judgement or expertise,
or that require conceptual categorization and standardization rather than relevance ranking of
keywords, do not fit into its proposed "leadership" strategy. This strategy itself, however, is
based on an inappropriate business model â€“ and a misrepresentation of that business model to
begin with. The Calhoun report draws unjustified conclusions about the digital age, inflates
wishful thinking, fails to make critical distinctions, and disregards (as well as mischaracterizes)
an alternative "niche" strategy for research libraries, to promote scholarship (rather than increase
"market position"). Its recommendations to eliminate Library of Congress Subject Headings, and
to use "fast turnaround" time as the "gold standard" in cataloging, are particularly unjustified,
and would have serious negative consequences for the capacity of research libraries to promote
OCLC sent out an email to their customers today informing them of new features added to WorldCat. Namely, users can now add reviews, notes and tables of contents to WorldCat records. No word yet on when users will be able to post pictures of themselves reading the books or Google maps of book locations.
User-contributed content helps extend the OCLC cooperative to include record-enhancing information from non-cataloging library professionals as well as library users. For example, family members may add notes to records for genealogical materials about their families, or community members may comment on historical photographs or documents from digital collections about their communities that reside in the WorldCat database.