Carla Hayden becomes the first woman, first black to lead Library of Congress

Chief Justice John Roberts is slated to swear in Carla Hayden on Wednesday to lead the Library of Congress, the world's largest library, created in 1800 by President John Adams. Hayden, 64, the first woman and the first African American to serve as the Librarian of Congress, sat down with USA TODAY's Capital Download to talk about her battle against provisions of the USA Patriot Act and her decision to keep Baltimore's libraries open in the wake of violence over the death of Freddie Gray. Questions and answers have been edited for length and clarity.
From Carla Hayden becomes the first woman, first black to lead Library of Congress
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Six of Roald Dahl's made-up words have been added to the Oxford English Dictionary to celebrate his centenary

To honor the centenary of his birth this month, the Oxford English Dictionary has updated its latest edition today (Sept. 12) with six new words connected to Dahl’s writing, and revisions to six other phrases popularized by Dahl’s evocative stories. In May, the Oxford University Press also published a Roald Dahl Dictionary complete with 8,000 words coined or popularized by the author.
From Six of Roald Dahl's made-up words have been added to the Oxford English Dictionary to celebrate his centenary — Quartz
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Dallas on path to becoming one of the few U.S. cities to regulate Little Free Libraries

On Monday morning, a Dallas City Council committee signed off on a proposal that would limit the size and location of community book exchanges that have taken root in some two dozen Dallas residents' front yards.  As far as city officials can tell, if the full council gives its blessing, Dallas will become one of the only cities in the country to specifically regulate the take-a-book, leave-a-book boxes, which, in the past, have been subject to building laws and zoning codes.
From Dallas on path to becoming one of the few U.S. cities to regulate Little Free Libraries | Dallas Morning News
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How Did That Make It Through Peer Review?

Yet, I suspect these kinds of situations are relatively rare. Having been involved in enough papers, and, yes, being party to papers where I didn’t catch something in the review or editorial process, I have the ultimate answer: Reviewers, editors, and authors are human. What I mean by this is that scientific papers are complex beasts. A single manuscript may weave together disparate groups of organisms, unfamiliar pieces of anatomy, far-flung reaches of the globe, and multiple statistical techniques. A typical paper is usually seen by a single editor and two to four reviewers. It is extremely unlikely that every facet of the paper will be seen by an appropriate expert on that given facet. How likely is it that every error will be caught and addressed?
From How Did That Make It Through Peer Review? | PLOS Paleo Community

MIT's New Toy Can Read Closed Books Using Terahertz Radiation

A group of researchers from MIT and Georgia Tech have built a device that can see through paper and distinguish ink from blank paper to determine what is written on the sheets. The prototype successfully identified letters printed on the top nine sheets of a stack of paper, and eventually the researchers hope to develop a system that can read closed books that have actual covers.

"The Metropolitan Museum in New York showed a lot of interest in this, because they want to, for example, look into some antique books that they don't even want to touch," said Barmak Heshmat, a research scientist at the MIT Media Lab and author on the new paper, published today in Nature Communications.

From MIT's New Toy Can Read Closed Books Using Terahertz Radiation

The Paper has a catchy title: Terahertz time-gated spectral imaging for content extraction through layered structures

Thanks to Ender for another great link!

Libraries becoming popular places for drug users to shoot up

The same qualities that make libraries ideal for studying and reading - unfettered public access, quiet corners and nooks, minimal interaction with other people - also make them appealing places to shoot up heroin, librarians are finding.
From Libraries becoming popular places for drug users to shoot up - CBS News
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European court says linking to illegal content is copyright infringement

In a decision that is already controversial, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has ruled in favor of copyright owners and against hyperlinks. The CJEU decision, though qualified, raises the strong possibility that publishers linking to infringing third party sites will also be liable for infringement.
From European court says linking to illegal content is copyright infringement
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D.C. will hide once-banned books throughout the city this month

D.C. will hide once-banned books throughout the city this month The D.C. public library system is hiding several hundred copies of books — which were once banned or challenged — in private businesses throughout all eight wards to celebrate Banned Books Week. The “UNCENSORED banned books” scavenger hunt kicked off Sept. 6 and will run through the month. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/local/wp/2016/09/08/banned-books-will-be-hidden-all-over-d-c-this-month/
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The Uncomfortable Truth About Children's Books

http://www.motherjones.com/media/2016/08/diversity-childrens-books-slavery-twitter Writers and scholars have bemoaned the whiteness of children's books for decades, but the topic took on new life in 2014, when the influential black author Walter Dean Myers and his son, the author and illustrator Christopher Myers, wrote companion pieces in the New York Times' Sunday Review asking, "Where are the people of color in children's books?" A month later, unwittingly twisting the knife, the industry convention BookCon featured an all-white, all-male panel of "superstar" children's book authors. Novelist Ellen Oh and like-minded literary types responded with a Twitter campaign—#WeNeedDiverseBooks—that spawned more than 100,000 tweets.
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Libraries 2016 | Pew Research Center

Trends in visiting public libraries have steadied, and many Americans have high expectations for what their local libraries should offer
From Libraries 2016 | Pew Research Center
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Evidence Rebuts Chomsky's Theory of Language Learning

The research suggests a radically different view, in which learning of a child’s first language does not rely on an innate grammar module. Instead the new research shows that young children use various types of thinking that may not be specific to language at all—such as the ability to classify the world into categories (people or objects, for instance) and to understand the relations among things. These capabilities, coupled with a unique hu­­­man ability to grasp what others intend to communicate, allow language to happen. The new findings indicate that if researchers truly want to understand how children, and others, learn languages, they need to look outside of Chomsky’s theory for guidance.
From Evidence Rebuts Chomsky's Theory of Language Learning - Scientific American
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The Privacy Wars Are About to Get A Whole Lot Worse

The best way to secure data is never to collect it in the first place. Data that is collected is likely to leak. Data that is collected and retained is certain to leak. A house that can be controlled by voice and gesture is a house with a camera and a microphone covering every inch of its floorplan. The IoT will rupture notice-and-consent, but without some other legal framework to replace it, it’ll be a free-for-all that ends in catastrophe. I’m frankly very scared of this outcome and have a hard time imagining many ways in which we can avert it, but I do have one scenario that’s plausible: class action lawsuits.
From Locus Online Perspectives » Cory Doctorow:The Privacy Wars Are About to Get A Whole Lot Worse

The game is up: Shakespeare's language not as original as dictionaries think

Australian academic David McInnis claims literary bias by first editors of OED has credited Shakespeare with inventing phrases in common Elizabethan use https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/sep/06/shakespeare-language-not-original-david-mcinnis-claim-oed-bias
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The Brooklyn 100: Rita Meade, Celebrity Librarian

While there are not many celebrity librarians out there, Rita Meade certainly counts as one. By day, an employee of the Brooklyn Public Library, by night a children’s book author, library-themed band (Lost in the Stacks) frontwoman, and host of the Book Riot podcast Dear Book Nerd.
From The Brooklyn 100: Rita Meade, Celebrity Librarian
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George Orwell and the whiff of genius

Orwell often lived in places with no washing facilities, and in the company of chickens and goats. He loved farmyard smells: cows grazing in a meadow were scented ‘like a distillation of vanilla and fresh hay’. Sutherland thinks it significant that there are no animals in Nineteen Eighty-Four — apart from the rats, of which the author’s phobia was as intense as Winston Smith’s.
From George Orwell and the whiff of genius
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Majority of Americans are still reading print books | Pew Research Center

A growing share of Americans are reading e-books on tablets and smartphones rather than dedicated e-readers, but print books remain much more popular than books in digital formats
From Majority of Americans are still reading print books | Pew Research Center
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Alleged Toner Pirate Scam Targets Iowa Libraries

At least 15 public libraries in Iowa have been targeted by a toner pirate scam this year. That’s according to the Iowa Attorney General’s Office, which filed a consumer fraud lawsuit against three Orange County, California-based businesses Thursday. The supposed scam came to light thanks to Cate St. Clair, an attorney by training and library director by trade. When Robey Memorial Library in Waukon received a mysterious bill for about $400 for toner, St. Clair called the number printed on the invoice.
From Alleged Toner Pirate Scam Targets Iowa Libraries | Iowa Public Radio
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France: Open Access law adopted

In France, the final text of a new law on Open Access has been adopted on June 29, 2016. On July 20, the Assemblée Nationale has approved the bill, and it still needs to be voted on by the Sénat on September 27. 
From France: Open Access law adopted | Newsletter items

Can Google Help Translate a Classic Novel? (no)

A classic of Argentine literature, Antonio Di Benedetto's Zama is available for the first time in English. The novel, about a provincial magistrate of the Spanish crown named Zama, is a riveting portrait of a mind deteriorating as the 18th century draws to a close. Esther Allen brilliantly translates Di Benedetto's novel, and talks about the six-year process of bringing the book to U.S. readers. No, Google Translate was in no way useful to my translation of the 1956 Argentine novel Zama: let's get that out of the way first thing.
From Can Google Help Translate a Classic Novel?
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A Challenging Future Awaits Libraries Able to Change [From 2001]

Conclusions from the International Summer School on the Digital Library Fundamental changes are occurring in society, education, technology and publishing. If academic/research libraries want to survive, they must also change. Libraries should, of course: Provide electronic access to scholarly material; Customize and personalize information services. But, more importantly, they should: Experiment on distribution and business models together with publishers (preferably via library consortia, which should be more than just buying groups); Support universities and research communities to develop document servers and open archives for their own scientific output; Stimulate universities to change their cost allocation models in such a way that the library budget is centralized, and decisions about scientific information are no longer made by individual faculties.
From A Challenging Future Awaits Libraries Able to Change: Highlights of the International Summer School on the Digital Library

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